During the past decade, anabolic steroid abuse became a national
concern. These drugs are used illicitly by weight lifters, body builders, long
distance runners, cyclists, and others who claim that these drugs give them a
competitive advantage and/or improve their physical appearance. Overall
youth steroid use remains alarmingly high. According to the 1999 Monitoring
the Future Study, the percentage of eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders who
reported using steroids at least once in their lives has increased steadily over
the past four years (an average of 1.8 percent in 1996, 2.1 percent in 1997,
2.3 percent in 1998, and 2.8 percent in 1999).
Concerns over a growing illicit market and prevalence of abuse
combined with the possibility of harmful longterm effects of steroid use led
Congress in 1991 to place anabolic steroids into Schedule III of the
Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The CSA defines an...